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 Phonological Awareness, Phonics and Spelling

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Posts : 477
Join date : 2014-07-23
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Location : Agadir

PostSubject: Phonological Awareness, Phonics and Spelling   Tue Aug 12, 2014 3:06 pm

Phonological Awareness, Phonics and Spelling:

Pre-School
Phonological awareness:
General sounds discrimination

• Environmental (animals, nature etc.)
• Instrumental sounds (body percussion rhythm,
Voice sounds and musical instruments)

Working with words:
• Identify when words end, count words in
Sentences, jump in hoops to signal words
• Identify and compare long and short words
(orally)

Syllables:
• Clap syllables and count syllables
• Segment words into syllables
• Blend syllables to make words (teacher says the syllables of a word slowly and syllables together to make the word

Alliteration:
• Identify first sound/s in words, making and saying Tongue twisters eg: Sammy sausage saved Sally Snake
• Play odd one out games (eg. “cap”, “cot”, “nap” – which one is the odd one out?)

Rhyme:
• Identify rhyming words through singing songs, rhymes and stories
• Create original rhymes with children

Phonemic awareness:
• Introduce letter sounds (s, a, t, p, I, n)
• Identify/count the phonemes words with 2 and 3 phonemes
• Oral blending and segmenting of words made from SATPIN sounds
• Blend, segment and manipulate the phonemes orally in 2 and 3 phoneme words (eg: sat, pat, pit, cat)

Reception
Revise: Phonological awareness
Phonemic awareness

• Explicitly teach and play with all 44 phonemes (sounds) orally, using the sequence below, using 3-6 sounds at a time (eg: s a t p i n to begin)
• Identify/count sounds in words (nap = 3 sounds)
• Blend sounds in words (b/ /a/ /t/ = bat)
• Segment sounds in words (pig = /p/ i/g/)
• Manipulate/delete sounds (dig without the /d/ sound makes “ig”)

Phonics:
• Teach the relationship between sound and symbol (phonemes to graphemes) in a sequential order; s, a, t, p, I, n, o, b, m, c, g, h, d, f, e, k, v, I, r, u, j, w, z, x, y. “ff” (sniff) “ll (fill), ss (miss) zz (fizz)
• Blend sounds to make and spell words using known graphemes from the sequence above

Read and spell:
• READ decodable words and sentences (eg A man sat on a map) by blending known graphemes to make CV, VC, VCC and CVC words
• SPELL decodable words using known graphemes through games an structured activities (CV, VC, VCC, CVC, CVCC and CCVC words)
High frequency words:
• Teach and practice identifying and reading irregular high-frequency words: the, to, go, no, I, and

Year 1
RE-teach: Phonemic awareness skills from PP

*Orally Segment, blend, delete and manipulate the 44 Phonemes to make words

Phonics:
• Revise sound-symbol relationship sequence from pre-primary
• Teach the following digraphs:
• ‘sh’ (ship), ‘ch’ (chop), ‘th’ (think), ‘ck’, (kick), ‘wh’ (what), ‘ng’ (king) ‘qu’ (queen), ‘ee’ (week) ‘oo’ (food)
• Provide opportunities to make words using these and other known graphemes through games and play

Read and spell:
• Revise CV and VC words (on, us)
• Revise CVC words (cat, dog)
• Revise and teach CCVC words (flip, stop)
• Revise and teach CVCC words (fist, jump)
• Teach CCVCC words (blank, stink)

Spelling rules and affixes:
Explicitly teach the following spelling rules:
• Final ‘e’ rule – The ‘e’ is silent and is attached to the other vowel separated by a consonant (cake, bite)
• ‘k’ precedes the vowels ‘i’ or ‘e’ (eg kite or kettle) and “c” precedes other vowel sounds (eg cat or cone)

High frequency words:
• Revise pre-primary high frequency words
• Teach the spelling of irregular high frequency words including: he, she, we, was, me, be my, you, do, her, they, are, all, have, little, some, come, were, there little, one, when, out, what, again, so
• ‘Q’ (u): appears this way because Q always appears with ‘U’ ie queen, quilt, quiet, cheque etc

Year 2
Phonics:

• Revise consonant digraphs from yr 1
• Teach two and three letter graphemes (diapraphs), ‘ai’ (rain), ‘ie’ ‘ir’ ‘ay’ ‘oa’ ‘oo’ (fool), ‘ar’ ‘or’ ‘ur’ ‘oi’ ‘igh’ ‘ear’ (wear), ‘ow’ (show), ‘er’ ‘ou’ (found), ‘air’ ‘ure’(sure), ‘aw’ (paw), ‘tch’ (catch), ‘ear’ (hear), ‘ow’ (how)
• Practice applying phonics knowledge to decoding and encoding (reading and spelling) of unfamiliar words.

Read and spell:
• CCVC words (drop, step)
• CVCC words (bank, belt)
• CCCVC words (strap, scrub)
• CCVCC words (crisp) and CVCCC words (mints)
• Read and spell two syllable and three syllable words
• Teach the spelling of irregular high frequency words including: said, have like, some, come, were, there
• Teach homophones of high frequency words including: there, they’re, there, two, to, too.

Spelling rules and affixes:
Teach generalisations of spelling rules including:
• Doubling the final consonant rule before adding ‘ing’ (hop becomes hopping)
• c/k rule for /k/ in CCVC words
• Soft ‘c’ (mice), soft ‘g’ (cage)
• Rules for adding suffixes: ‘ing’, ‘ed’, ‘er’, ‘est’, ‘ful’, ‘ly’.
• Teach contractions including: don’t, I’m, it’s, isn’t, can’t, aren’t

High frequency words:
• Read 100 high frequency words.

Year 3
[b]Phonics:

• Explicitly teach irregular spellings including ‘or’ (word), ‘ie’ (field), ‘a’ (far), ‘gn’ (gnat), ‘ph’ (phone), ‘kn’ (knit), ‘st’ (listen), ‘wr’ (wrong),‘lm’ (calm), ‘ue (blue), ‘ho’ (honest), ‘o-e’ (come), ‘mb’ (lamb), ‘l’ (blind), ‘ea’ (bread), ‘ore’ (more), ‘oar’ (board), ‘augh’ (taught), ‘ui’ (build), ‘mn’ (autumn), ‘gde’ (bridge) ‘are’ (care).

Read and spell:
• CCVCCC words (thirst)
• CCCVCC words (string)

Spelling rules and affixes:
• Teach syllabification to assist spelling of more complex multi-syllabic words (en/vir/on/ment)
• Explore compound words through games as a strategy for assisting in spelling and understanding new words (heartbeat, afternoon, scarecrow)
• Teach contractions including: we’ve, that’s, they’ve, you’ve, won’t, we’re, they’re, you’re, what’s.
Teach the following suffixes:
• Suffix ‘ly’ to make adverbs
• Suffix ‘er’ for comparative (faster, longer) adding ‘y’ (grassy), ‘est’ for superieative3 (biggest, longest)
High Frequency Words: Read 300 high-frequency words

Year 4
Phonics:

Teach more complex phonic rules including ‘aigh’ (straight), ‘er’ (sergeant), ‘t’ (future), ‘u’ (bury), ‘eo’ (people), ‘i’ (ski), ‘sc’ (science), ‘au’ (gauge), ‘ch’ (chorus), ‘oo’ (flood), ‘ough’ (bought, bough, trough, tough, through), ‘ti (question) ‘ie’ (friend), ‘eo’ (leopard), ‘e’ (equal), ‘air’ (fair)
• Teach unstressed vowels (schwas) in the final positions including: ‘er’ (teacher, water)
• Teach the spelling of words including the sound /j/ (as in giant and general )
Word origins:
• Tuning into morphology-discuss meanings auto (automatic), tele (telephone), trans (transform), circum (circumference)

Spelling rules and affixes:
• Compound word building using known words
• Distinguish spelling and meaning of common homophones (to, two, too)
• Teach more complex contractions including: what’s, shouldn’t, couldn’t, wouldn’t
• Prefixes: ‘bi’, ‘for’, ‘over’, ‘dis’, ‘pre’, ‘de’, ‘re’, ‘non’, ‘un’, ‘mis’, ‘ anti’
• Suffixes: ‘ive’, ‘tion’, ‘ice’
• Suffixes ‘ed’, ‘ing’, ‘ly’, ‘age’, ‘ance’, ‘ful’, ‘less’, ‘ness’ and ‘ing’ when adding to words ending in ‘e’ (‘e’ goes away when ‘ing’ comes to stay)
• Nouns ending in ‘e’ drop to make adjective (bone-bony)
• Suffix changing functions ‘ify’ ‘ate’ (classify, passionate)

Plurals
• Most nouns add ’s’ (cliff-cliffs)
• Words ending in ‘fe’ add ‘ve’ (half-halves)
• Words ending in ‘s’, ‘ss’, ‘x’, ‘z’, ‘sh’, ‘ch’, add ‘es’ (fixes) words ending in y-drop and add ‘ies’ (dry-dries)
Ending in ‘o’ add ‘es’ (potatoes)

Year 5
Spelling strategies:

• Use sounds, visual patterns and root words to spell multi-syllabic words
• Use phonics and morphology to spell new and unfamiliar words
Explicitly teach irregular spellings:
• Teach unusual phonics: ‘te’ (righteous) ‘ai’ (said), ‘ough’ (through), ‘ai’ (plait), ‘our’ (journey)
• Tricky digraphs: island, pneumonia, liquor, ocean, special, machine
• The letter ‘a’ makes an /o/ sound after ’w’ (swamp, swan, swap)
• Teach unstressed vowels (boundary, business)
• Common letter strings with different pronunciations including; read/deaf and ‘igh’, ‘ough’, ‘ear’, ‘oo’, ‘ie’, ‘our’

Word origins:
• Investigate simple Latin roots and meanings including prim (primary), anti (against)
• Identify word root, derivations and spelling patterns as a support for spelling (mis-tak-en)

Spelling rules and affixes:
• Revisit adding ‘ing’, soft ‘c’ before ‘e’, ‘i’ or ‘y’ for /s/ soft ‘g’ before ‘e’, ‘I’ or ‘y’
• Plurals for words ending in ‘o’ can be ‘s’, ‘es’
• Plurals for ending ‘y’: If a vowel precedes, add ‘s’ (boy – boys). If a consonant precedes, drop ‘y’ and add ‘ies’ (stories)
• Teach generalizations including maintaining a short vowel sound before a ‘g’ which has the /y/ phoneme, by adding ‘d’, ‘n’, or ’i’ before the ‘g’ (judge, lunge)
• Introduce antonyms to change a word form active to inactive including ‘ir’, ‘in’, ‘im’, ‘il’
• Teach and use less common suffixes including ‘im’, ‘ir’, ‘cian’
• Adding suffixes to words ending in ‘y’ including ‘ness’, ‘ment’, ‘ful’, ‘ous’
• Rule ‘i’ before ‘e’ except after ‘c’ or when sounding like ‘ay’ (neighbour or weigh)

Year 6
Spelling strategies:

• Teach a multi-strategy approach to spell unfamiliar words including: sound, syllables, visual patterns, syntax word origins and semantics
• Use a range of appropriate strategies to edit, proofread and correct spelling in own work
• Use a dictionary and thesaurus
• Teach metacognitive strategies ‘what makes a good speller” etc

Word origins:
• Teach meaning of Greek roots and list words containing these roots: ‘aero (air), ‘hydro’ (water), ‘auto’ (self), ‘scope’ (look), ‘geo’ (earth), ‘photo’ (light), ‘phono’ (sound), ‘tele’ (far)
• Teach Anglo-Saxon morphemes and words using word webs and word sorts to create new words, including: ward, head, court, bear, come, knight, rain, self, king, hood, hand, some, bow, farm, year, cast, yonder, less, way, end, ‘un’, become, ‘ing’, high
• Teach meaning of Latin roots and list words containing these roots: ‘phobia’ (fear), ‘ology’ (study), ‘pre’ before

Spelling rules and affixes:
Explicitly teach the spelling rules in meaningful context and practice through the use of games;
• Teach generalisations including dropping one ‘l’ when adding the suffix ‘full’ for the word ‘useful’
• Double consonant when adding ‘ed’, ‘ing’ or ‘y’ (hopping, swimming)
• To make nouns plural: After ‘x’, ‘sh’, ‘ss’ or ‘ch, add ‘es’, (ashes, wishes, boxes)
• ‘y’ changes to ‘i’ when adding suffixes: ‘es’, ‘er’, ‘ed’, ‘ly’, ‘est’ or ‘ness’ (noisily, naughtiest)
• Verbs adding ‘ing’ and ‘ed’ changes to ‘i’ adding ‘es and ‘ed’
• Prefixes- ‘anti’, ‘inter’, ‘intro’, ‘sub’, ‘co’, ‘bi’ oct’,‘aqua’
• Suffixes – ‘tion’, ‘cial’, ‘fous’, ‘age’, ‘ance’, ‘ive’, ‘ship’, ‘hood’, ‘ly’ ‘ful’, ‘cide’, ‘less’, ‘ness’
Words ending in’y’ – change to ‘i’ and add ‘ly’ Exception – when a vowel before the ‘y’ add the suffix ‘s’, ‘er’, ‘ed’ (valley – valleys)

Year 7
Spelling strategies:

• Teach a multi-strategy approach to spelling unfamiliar words including: sounds, syllables, visual patterns, syntax, word origins and semantics
• Use a range of appropriate strategies to edit, proofread and correct spelling in own work
• Use a dictionary and thesaurus

Word origins:
• Teach meaning of Latin roots and list words containing these roots: aqua (water), annus (year), audio (hear), video (see), radio (ray), multi (many), uni (one) bi (two), tri (three)
• Teach meaning of Greek roots and list words containing these roots using word webs and word sorts to create new words, including: Chrono (time), graph (to write), sphere (round), thermo (to write), semi (half), photo (light), tele (far), hydro (water), hyper (over), phobia (fear), scope (to look), cracy (rule of), phile (to love)

Spelling rules and affixes:
• Revise/re-teach spelling rules and suffixes from year 6
• Teach meaning and spelling of suffixes – fully, ‘ly’, ible’, ‘able’, ‘al’, ‘ally’, ‘ing’, ‘ed’ (and practice using morpheme games)
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