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 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

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PostSubject: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES   Sun Dec 27, 2015 11:41 pm

GERUNDS  AND  INFINITIVES

The gerund and the infinitive can function as nouns.


- the gerund may stand alone as the subject of a verb; the infinitive is not often used in this way.

e.g.: Smoking is bad for your health.
       To ease credit restrictions at this stage would be unwise.

- both may stand alone as the object of a verb

e.g.: I have finished working.
       I want to leave.

- both may function as the complement of to be:

e.g.: My worst vice is gambling.
        Her first impulse  was to run away.

- both may be qualified by adverb:

e.g.: A teacher of foreign language must avoid speaking too quickly.
       He asked me to leave immediately.

- both may be followed by a direct or an indirect object:

e.g.: Closing the factory leads to social unrest. (direct object)
       He hates speaking to strangers. (indirect object)
       To leave the door unlocked means to invite burglars in. (direct object)
       The manager wants to speak to you. (indirect object)


GERUNDS:

A. Common verbs often followed by gerunds; verbs marked with * can also be followed by that + clause:

*appreciate, avoid, contemplate, delay, *deny, detest, dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, excuse, face, *fancy, finish, involve, *mention, mind, miss, postpone, practise, resent, risk, suggest, burst out, it’s no good/ use, feel like, give up, keep on, leave off, put off, can’t stand, spend/ waste time

B. Verbs followed by prepositions + gerund (including their adjectival forms):

absorbed in smth; be engrossed in smth; specialize in smth; succeed in smth; apologize for smth; blame someone for smth; pay for; accuse someone of smth; remind someone of smth; suspect someone of smth; charge someone with smth; concern with smth; deal with smth; suffer from smth; decide on smth; insist on smth (someone doing smth); insure smth against smth; protest against smth; be concerned about smth; dream about smth; hint at smth; marvel at smth; be used to smth.

C. Prepositions following adjectives and nouns + gerund:

OF: afraid of, aware of, capable of
AT: good at, surprised at,
WITH: obsessed with, pleased with
ON: keen on, an authority (expert) on, ban on
TO: addicted to, grateful to, immune to, prone to, a solution to, a threat to, an alternative to
BY: bored by, distressed by, surprised by
IN: experienced in, interested in
FOR: thankful for, credit for, desire for, responsibility for
OVER: be in dispute over smth

D. Phrasal verbs + gerunds:

break down, break off (stop talking), give up, put off, get round to (find tome to …), end up,         feel up to (feel capable of doing smth), put oneself out (take the trouble to help someone)


INFINITIVES:

A. Common verbs often followed by infinitive with to; verbs marked * can also be followed by that + clause:

*agree, *appear, *arrange, attempt, ask, choose, dare, *decide, *demand, deserve, *expect, fail, grow, hasten, *happen, *hope, hurry, *learn, long, manage, neglect, offer, pay, *plan, *pledge, *pretend, *promise, refuse, *resolve, seek, *seem, struggle, *swear, *threaten, *vow, want, *wish

B. Common verbs often followed by infinitive without to ; verbs marked * can also be followed by that + clause:

help, make, let, *feel, *hear, *notice, watch, *observe, *perceive, *se, *sense


GERUNDS OR INFINITIVES:


Verbs followed by either –ing or infinitive with to:

1. Can’t bear, hate, like, love, prefer
• Like to usually refers to habitual preferences: We like to go out to lunch on Sunday.
• Not like to means think it wrong to:  I don’t like to disturb colleagues at home.

2. Forget, remember
• With to both verbs refer to an obligation: I had to phone the office but I forgot to do it.
• With –ing both verbs refer to past events: I don’t remember learning to walk.
• Both can be followed by that + clause: I remembered that I had to pay the phone bill.

3. Try
• With  to refers to something attempted, which might fail or succeed: I tried to warn him, but it was too late.
• With –ing this refers to making an experiment, or to a new experience:
     Have you tried windsurfing? It’s great!
    Try taking an aspirin. You’ll feel better.

4. Go on
• With –ing this refers to the continuing of an action: She went on working even though it was late.
• With to this refers to the continuation of a speech: The Prime Minister went on to praise the Chancellor. This means: The Prime Minister continued his speech by praising the Chancellor.

5. Mean
• With the meaning intend, this is followed by to: Sorry, I meant to tell you about the party.
• With –ing  and an impersonal subject, this refers to what is involved: If we catch the early train, it will mean getting up at 6.00.
• That + clause is possible when meaning is being explained: This means that you have to report to the police station.

6. Regret
• With to this refers to the speaker’s regrets about what is going to be said. It often occurs in formal statements of this kind: We regret to inform you that your application has been unsuccessful.
• With –ing this refers to a regret about the past: I regret saying that to him.
• That + clause is also possible: We regret that we didn’t tell her earlier.

7. Stop
• With to this refers to an intention: Jane stopped to check the oil level in the engine.
• With –ing this refers to the ending of an activity: The baby stopped waking up during the night now.

8. Hear, see, watch
• When followed by infinitive without to, the action is complete: We watched all the cars cross the finishing line.
• With –ing, the action is still in progress: I heard someone coming up the stairs.
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